The Full Form of DNA is Deoxyribonucleic Acid. DNA is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms, in other words, it carries information from your grandparents and generations before them. DNA is an organic compound that has a unique molecular structure that is found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
In 1869, the Swiss biologist Johannes Friedrich Miescher while working on white blood cells(WBC), first recognized and named DNA. James Watson and Francis Crick later discovered the double helix structure of a molecule of DNA . Then,for processing a human being’s genetic information DNA is responsible it has been shown.
DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases:
- Adenine (A)
- Guanine (G)
- Cytosine (C)
- Thymine (T)
The nitrogen bases pair with each other as A pairs with T and C pairs with G to form base pairs.
The full Form of DNA is : Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Types Of DNA :
There are 3 types of DNA as follows
- A – DNA
- B – DNA
- Z – DNA
Functions of DNA :
- DNA Finger Printing : Each individual has its own DNA sequence that does not match with others. This property of DNA is used in DNA fingerprinting, a technique used to identify an individual from his or her DNA.
- Cellular Metabolism : It regulates the metabolic reactions of the cells with the help of enzymes, hormones and specific RNAs.
- Replication : DNA produces carbon copies through replication. It allows DNA transfer genetic information from old cells to new cells (from one generation to the next generation).
- Development : It controls the development of organisms through an internal genetic clock.
- Transcription : DNA produces RNAs (Ribonucleic Acid) through the process of transcription.
- Genetic Information: It carries genetic information from one generation to the next generation.
Importance of DNA :
DNA is vital for all living beings like human beings, animals, creatures and even plants. DNA is very important for the genetic instruction guide for life & it’s process, inheritance, coding for proteins.
The set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome, the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged into 46 chromosomes.A human cell’s DNA totals about 3 meters in length.
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